Keyword

Result: 105 questions

What is Dart language?

Answer:

Dart is a general-purpose programming language originally developed by Google and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408). It is used to build web, server and mobile applications, and for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. It is open-source software under a permissive free software license (modified BSD license).

Dart is an object-orientedclass definedsingle inheritance language using C# style syntax that transcompiles optionally into JavaScript. It supports interfacesmixinsabstract classesreified generics, and optional typing.

From Wikipedia

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Which are the different languages supported by MongoDB?

Answer:

MonggoDB provides official driver support for C, C++, C#, Java, Node.js, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scala, Go and Erlang.

You can use MongoDB with any of the above languages. There are some other community supported drivers too but the above mentioned ones are officially provided by MongoDB.

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Given an array of ints, write a C# method to total all the values that are even numbers.

Answer:

There are of course many ways to do this, but two of the most straightforward would be either:

static long TotalAllEvenNumbers(int[] intArray) {
  return intArray.Where(i => i % 2 == 0).Sum(i => (long)i);
}

or:

static long TotalAllEvenNumbers(int[] intArray) {
  return (from i in intArray where i % 2 == 0 select (long)i).Sum();
}

Here are the key things to look for in the answer:

  1. Does the candidate take advantage of the C# language constructs which make a one-liner solution possible (i.e., rather than employing a more lengthy solution which contains a loop, conditional statement, and accumulator)?
  2. Does the candidate consider the possibility of overflow. For example, an implementation such as return intArray.Where(i => i % 2 == 0).Sum() (regardless of the return type of the function) might be an “obvious” one-line solution, but the probability of overflow here is high. While the approach used in the answers above of converting to long doesn’t eliminate the possibility, it makes it a highly unlikely that an overflow exception will occur. Note that, if the candidate asks about the expected size of the array and the magnitude of its members, he or she is obviously considering this overflow issue, which is part of what we’re looking to ascertain.
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Given an instance circle of the following class:

public sealed class Circle {
  private double radius;
  
  public double Calculate(Func<double, double> op) {
    return op(radius);
  }
}

write code to calculate the circumference of the circle, without modifying the Circle class itself.

Answer:

The preferred answer would be of the form:

circle.Calculate(r => 2 * Math.PI * r);

Since we don’t have access to the private radius field of the object, we tell the object itself to calculate the circumference, by passing it the calculation function inline.

A lot of C# programmers shy away from (or don’t understand) function-valued parameters. While in this case the example is a little contrived, the purpose is to see if the applicant understands how to formulate a call to Calculate which matches the method’s definition.

Alternatively, a valid (though less elegant) solution would be to retrieve the radius value itself from the object and then perform the calculation with the result:

var radius = circle.Calculate(r => r);
var circumference = 2 * Math.PI * radius;

Either way works. The main thing we’re looking for here is to see that the candidate is familiar with, and understands how to invoke, the Calculate method.

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What is the output of the program below? Explain your answer.

class Program {
  private static string result;
 
  static void Main() {
    SaySomething();
    Console.WriteLine(result);
  }
 
  static async Task<string> SaySomething() {
    await Task.Delay(5);
    result = "Hello world!";
    return “Something”;
  }
}

Also, would the answer change if we were to replace await Task.Delay(5); with Thread.Sleep(5)? Why or why not?

Answer:

The answer to the first part of the question (i.e., the version of the code with await Task.Delay(5);) is that the program will just output a blank line (not “Hello world!”). This is because result will still be uninitialized when Console.WriteLine is called.

Most procedural and object-oriented programmers expect a function to execute from beginning to end, or to a return statement, before returning to the calling function. This is not the case with C# async functions. They only execute up until the first await statement, then return to the caller. The function called by await (in this case Task.Delay) is executed asynchronously, and the line after the await statement isn’t signaled to execute until Task.Delay completes (in 5 milliseconds). However, within that time, control has already returned to the caller, which executes the Console.WriteLine statement on a string that hasn’t yet been initialized.

Calling await Task.Delay(5) lets the current thread continue what it is doing, and if it’s done (pending any awaits), returns it to the thread pool. This is the primary benefit of the async/await mechanism. It allows the CLR to service more requests with less threads in the thread pool.

Asynchronous programming has become a lot more common, with the prevalence of devices which perform over-the-network service requests or database requests for many activities. C# has some excellent programming constructs which greatly ease the task of programming asynchronous methods, and a programmer who is aware of them will produce better programs.

With regard to the second part of the question, if await Task.Delay(5); was replaced with Thread.Sleep(5), the program would output Hello world!. An async method without at least one await statement in it operates just like a synchronous method; that is, it will execute from beginning to end, or until it encounters a return statement. Calling Thread.Sleep() simply blocks the currently running thread, so the Thread.Sleep(5) call just adds 5 milliseconds to the execution time of the SaySomething() method.

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