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Result: 252 questions

The setcookie() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag.

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Which program do you need to write HTML?

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_________ is a JavaScript charting library and feature-rich API set that lets you build interactive Flash or HTML5 charts.

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terminate() method in HTML5 is used for ____________.

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_________ Function displays the latitude or Longitude in geoLocation in HTML5.

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Describe what a “reset” CSS file does and how it’s useful. Are you familiar with normalize.css? Do you understand how they differ?

Answer:

CSS Reset (or “Reset CSS”) is a short, often compressed (minified) set of CSS rules that resets the styling of all HTML elements to a consistent baseline. We should use reset css because every browser has its own default 'user agent' stylesheet, that it uses to make unstyled websites appear more legible.

Normalize you might call a CSS reset alternative. Instead of wiping out all styles, it delivers a set of reasonable defaults. It doesn't unset things that are already consistent across browsers and reasonable (e.g. bold headers). In that way it does some less than a reset. It also does some more than a reset in that it handles quirks you may never consider, like HTML5 audio element inconsistencies or line-height inconsistencies when you use sub and sup elements.

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Explain what a class selector is and how it’s used

Answer:

  • A class can be thought of as a grouped collection of CSS attributes applied to HTML elements. This allows you to apply the same styling to multiple HTML elements by placing them in the same CSS class.
  • Class methods can be called by inserting a ‘class’ property and name within an HTML element, then calling the class name with a ‘.’  in the CSS doc.
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Explain the three main ways to apply CSS styles to a Web page

Answer:

  • Inline: Though this method often goes against best practices, it’s easily done by inserting a ‘style’ attribute inside an HTML element:
    • e.g.) <p style=”color:blue”>Lorem Ipsum</p>
  • Embedded/Internal: Done by defining the head of an HTML document by wrapping characteristics in a <style> tag.
  • Linked/External: CSS is placed in an external .css file, and linked to the HTML document with a <link> tag. This can also be accomplished using the ‘@import’, however, this can slow page load time and is generally not advised.
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There are four Java classes related to the use of sensors on the Android platform. List them and explain the purpose of each.

Answer:

The four Java classes related to the use of sensors on the Android platform areL

  • Sensor: Provides methods to identify which capabilities are available for a specific sensor.
  • SensorManager: Provides methods for registering sensor event listeners and calibrating sensors.
  • SensorEvent: Provides raw sensor data, including information regarding accuracy.
  • SensorEventListener: Interface that defines callback methods that will receive sensor event notifications.

To learn more about sensors, refer to Android developer’s guide.

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What is a ContentProvider and what is it typically used for?

Answer:

ContentProvider manages access to a structured set of data. It encapsulates the data and provide mechanisms for defining data security. ContentProvider is the standard interface that connects data in one process with code running in another process.

More information about content providers can be found here in the Android Developer’s Guide.

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Under what condition could the code sample below crash your application? How would you modify the code to avoid this potential problem?

 Intent sendIntent = new Intent();
    sendIntent.setAction(Intent.ACTION_SEND);
    sendIntent.putExtra(Intent.EXTRA_TEXT, textMessage);
    sendIntent.setType(HTTP.PLAIN_TEXT_TYPE); // "text/plain" MIME type
    startActivity(sendIntent);

Answer.

An implicit intent specifies an action that can invoke any app on the device able to perform the action. Using an implicit intent is useful when your app cannot perform the action, but other apps probably can. If there is more than one application registered that can handle this request, the user will be prompted to select which one to use.

However, it is possible that there are no applications that can handle your intent. In this case, your application will crash when you invoke startActivity(). To avoid this, before calling startActivity() you should first verify that there is at least one application registered in the system that can handle the intent. To do this use resolveActivity() on your intent object:

    // Verify that there are applications registered to handle this intent
    // (resolveActivity returns null if none are registered)
    if (sendIntent.resolveActivity(getPackageManager()) != null) {
        startActivity(sendIntent);
    } 

See the Android developer’s guide for more information about implicit intents.

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The last callback in the lifecycle of an activity is onDestroy(). The system calls this method on your activity as the final signal that your activity instance is being completely removed from the system memory. Usually, the system will call onPause() and onStop() before calling onDestroy(). Describe a scenario, though, where onPause() and onStop() would not be invoked.

Answer:

onPause() and onStop() will not be invoked if finish() is called from within the onCreate() method. This might occur, for example, if you detect an error during onCreate() and call finish() as a result. In such a case, though, any cleanup you expected to be done in onPause() and onStop() will not be executed.

Although onDestroy() is the last callback in the lifecycle of an activity, it is worth mentioning that this callback may not always be called and should not be relied upon to destroy resources. It is better have the resources created in onStart() and onResume(), and have them destroyed in onStop() and onPause, respectively.

See the Android developer’s guide for more information about the activity lifecycle.

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Describe three common use cases for using an Intent.

Answer:

Common use cases for using an Intent include:

  • To start an activity: You can start a new instance of an Activity by passing an Intent to startActivity() method.
  • To start a service: You can start a service to perform a one-time operation (such as download a file) by passing an Intent to startService().
  • To deliver a broadcast: You can deliver a broadcast to other apps by passing an Intent to sendBroadcast()sendOrderedBroadcast(), or sendStickyBroadcast().

More information about intents can be found in Android developer’s guide.

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Normally, in the process of carrying out a screen reorientation, the Android platform tears down the foreground activity and recreates it, restoring each of the view values in the activity’s layout.

In an app you’re working on, you notice that a view’s value is not being restored after screen reorientation. What could be a likely cause of the problem that you should verify, at a minimum, about that particular view?

Answer:

You should verify that it has a valid id. In order for the Android system to restore the state of the views in your activity, each view must have a unique ID, supplied by the android:id attribute.

More information is available here.

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What is DDMS? Describe some of its capabilities.

Answer:

DDMS is the Dalvik Debug Monitor Server that ships with Android. It provides a wide array of debugging features including:

  • port-forwarding services
  • screen capture
  • thread and heap information
  • network traffic tracking
  • incoming call and SMS spoofing
  • simulating network state, speed, and latency
  • location data spoofing
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What is the difference between a fragment and an activity? Explain the relationship between the two.

Answer:

An activity is typically a single, focused operation that a user can perform (such as dial a number, take a picture, send an email, view a map, etc.). Yet at the same time, there is nothing that precludes a developer from creating an activity that is arbitrarily complex.

Activity implementations can optionally make use of the Fragment class for purposes such as producing more modular code, building more sophisticated user interfaces for larger screens, helping scale applications between small and large screens, and so on. Multiple fragments can be combined within a single activity and, conversely, the same fragment can often be reused across multiple activities. This structure is largely intended to foster code reuse and facilitate economies of scale.

A fragment is essentially a modular section of an activity, with its own lifecycle and input events, and which can be added or removed at will. It is important to remember, though, that a fragment’s lifecycle is directly affected by its host activity’s lifecycle; i.e., when the activity is paused, so are all fragments in it, and when the activity is destroyed, so are all of its fragments.

More information is available here in the Android Developer’s Guide.

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What are “launch modes”? What are the two mechanisms by which they can be defined? What specific types of launch modes are supported?

Answer:

A “launch mode” is the way in which a new instance of an activity is to be associated with the current task.

Launch modes may be defined using one of two mechanisms:

  • Manifest file. When declaring an activity in a manifest file, you can specify how the activity should associate with tasks when it starts. Supported values include:

    • standard (default). Multiple instances of the activity class can be instantiated and multiple instances can be added to the same task or different tasks. This is the common mode for most of the activities.
    • singleTop. The difference from standard is, if an instance of the activity already exists at the top of the current task and the system routes the intent to this activity, no new instance will be created because it will fire off an onNewIntent() method instead of creating a new object.
    • singleTask. A new task will always be created and a new instance will be pushed to the task as the root. However, if any activity instance exists in any tasks, the system routes the intent to that activity instance through the onNewIntent() method call. In this mode, activity instances can be pushed to the same task. This mode is useful for activities that act as the entry points.
    • singleInstance. Same as singleTask, except that the no activities instance can be pushed into the same task of the singleInstance’s. Accordingly, the activity with launch mode is always in a single activity instance task. This is a very specialized mode and should only be used in applications that are implemented entirely as one activity.
  • Intent flags. Calls to startActivity() can include a flag in the Intent that declares if and how the new activity should be associated with the current task. Supported values include:

    • FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK. Same as singleTask value in Manifest file (see above).
    • FLAG_ACTIVITY_SINGLE_TOP. Same as singleTop value in Manifest file (see above).
    • FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP. If the activity being started is already running in the current task, then instead of launching a new instance of that activity, all of the other activities on top of it are destroyed and this intent is delivered to the resumed instance of the activity (now on top), through onNewIntent()There is no corresponding value in the Manifest file that produces this behavior.

More information about launch modes is available here.

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What is JVM ? Why is Java called the “Platform Independent Programming Language” ?

Answer:

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a process virtual machine that can execute Java bytecode. Each Java source file is compiled into a bytecode file, which is executed by the JVM. Java was designed to allow application programs to be built that could be run on any platform, without having to be rewritten or recompiled by the programmer for each separate platform. A Java virtual machine makes this possible, because it is aware of the specific instruction lengths and other particularities of the underlying hardware platform.

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What is the Difference between JDK and JRE ?

Answer:

The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is basically the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) where your Java programs are being executed. It also includes browser plugins for applet execution. The Java Development Kit (JDK) is the full featured Software Development Kit for Java, including the JRE, the compilers and tools (like JavaDoc, and Java Debugger), in order for a user to develop, compile and execute Java applications.

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What does the “static” keyword mean ? Can you override private or static method in Java ?

Answer:

The static keyword denotes that a member variable or method can be accessed, without requiring an instantiation of the class to which it belongs. A user cannot override static methods in Java, because method overriding is based upon dynamic binding at runtime and static methods are statically binded at compile time. A static method is not associated with any instance of a class so the concept is not applicable.

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