The most popular e2e testing tool for AngularJS is Protractor. There are also others which rely on similar mechanisms. Describe how e2e testing of AngularJS applications work.


The e2e tests are executed against a running app, that is a fully initialized system. They most often spawn a browser instance and involve the actual input of commands through the user interface. The written code is evaluated by an automation program, such as a Selenium server (webdriver). That program sends commands to a browser instance, then evaluates the visible results and reports back to the user.

The assertions are handled by another library, for Protractor the default is Jasmine. Before Protractor, there was a module called Angular Scenarios, which usually was executed through Karma, and is now deprecated. Should you want to e2e test hybrid apps, you could use another Selenium server, called Appium.

Testing can be handled manually, or it can be delegated to continuous integration servers, either custom or ones provided by Travis, SauceLabs, and Codeship.


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