Question:

What is meant by "bit masking"?

Answer:

Bit masking means selecting only certain bits from byte(s) that might have many bits set. To examine some bits of a byte, the byte is bitwise "ANDed" with a mask that is a number consisting of only those bits of interest. For instance, to look at the one's digit (rightmost digit) of the variable flags, you bitwise AND it with a mask of one (the bitwise AND operator in C is &):

flags & 1;

To set the bits of interest, the number is bitwise "ORed" with the bit mask (the bitwise OR operator in C is |). For instance, you could set the one's digit of flags like so:

flags = flags | 1;

Or, equivalently, you could set it like this:

flags |= 1;

To clear the bits of interest, the number is bitwise ANDed with the one's complement of the bit mask. The "one's complement" of a number is the number with all its one bits changed to zeros and all its zero bits changed to ones. The one's complement operator in C is ~. For instance, you could clear the one's digit of flags like so:

flags = flags & ~1;

Or, equivalently, you could clear it like this:

flags &= ~1;

Sometimes it is easier to use macros to manipulate flag values.

Example Program : Macros that make manipulating flags easier.

/* Bit Masking */
/* Bit masking can be used to switch a character
   between lowercase and uppercase */
#define BIT_POS(N)            ( 1U << (N) )
#define SET_FLAG(N, F)        ( (N) |= (F) )
#define CLR_FLAG(N, F)        ( (N) &= -(F) )
#define TST_FLAG(N, F)        ( (N) & (F) )
#define BIT_RANGE(N, M)       ( BIT_POS((M)+1 - (N))-1 << (N) )
#define BIT_SHIFTL(B, N)      ( (unsigned)(B) << (N) )
#define BIT_SHIFTR(B, N)      ( (unsigned)(B) >> (N) )
#define SET_MFLAG(N, F, V)    ( CLR_FLAG(N, F), SET_FLAG(N, V) )
#define CLR_MFLAG(N, F)       ( (N) &= ~(F) )
#define GET_MFLAG(N, F)       ( (N) & (F) )
#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
  unsigned char ascii_char = 'A';        /*  char = 8 bits only */
  int test_nbr = 10;
  printf("Starting character = %c\n", ascii_char);
  /*  The 5th bit position determines if the character is
      uppercase or lowercase.
      5th bit = 0  - Uppercase
      5th bit = 1  - Lowercase      */
  printf("\nTurn 5th bit on = %c\n", SET_FLAG(ascii_char, BIT_POS(5)) );
  printf("Turn 5th bit off = %c\n\n", CLR_FLAG(ascii_char, BIT_POS(5)) );
  printf("Look at shifting bits\n");
  printf("=====================\n");
  printf("Current value = %d\n", test_nbr);
  printf("Shifting one position left = %d\n",
         test_nbr = BIT_SHIFTL(test_nbr, 1) );
  printf("Shifting two positions right = %d\n",
         BIT_SHIFTR(test_nbr, 2) );
}

BIT_POS(N) takes an integer N and returns a bit mask corresponding to that single bit position (BIT_POS(0)returns a bit mask for the one's digit, BIT_POS(1) returns a bit mask for the two's digit, and so on). So instead of writing

#define A_FLAG 4096

#define B_FLAG 8192

you can write

#define A_FLAG BIT_POS(12)

#define B_FLAG BIT_POS(13)

which is less prone to errors.

The SET_FLAG(N, F) macro sets the bit at position F of variable N. Its opposite is CLR_FLAG(N, F), which clears the bit at position F of variable N. Finally, TST_FLAG(N, F) can be used to test the value of the bit at position F of variable N, as in

if (TST_FLAG(flags, A_FLAG))
        /* do something */;

The macro BIT_RANGE(N, M) produces a bit mask corresponding to bit positions N through M, inclusive. With this macro, instead of writing

#define FIRST_OCTAL_DIGIT 7 /* 111 */

#define SECOND_OCTAL_DIGIT 56 /* 111000 */

you can write

#define FIRST_OCTAL_DIGIT BIT_RANGE(0, 2) /* 111 */

#define SECOND_OCTAL_DIGIT BIT_RANGE(3, 5) /* 111000 */

which more clearly indicates which bits are meant.

The macro BIT_SHIFT(B, N) can be used to shift value B into the proper bit range (starting with bit N). For instance, if you had a flag called C that could take on one of five possible colors, the colors might be defined like this:

#define C_FLAG          BIT_RANGE(8, 10)      /* 11100000000 */
/* here are all the values the C flag can take on */
#define C_BLACK         BIT_SHIFTL(0, 8)       /* 00000000000 */
#define C_RED           BIT_SHIFTL(1, 8)       /* 00100000000 */
#define C_GREEN         BIT_SHIFTL(2, 8)       /* 01000000000 */
#define C_BLUE          BIT_SHIFTL(3, 8)       /* 01100000000 */
#define C_WHITE         BIT_SHIFTL(4, 8)       /* 10000000000 */
#define C_ZERO          C_BLACK
#define C_LARGEST       C_WHITE
/* A truly paranoid programmer might do this */
#if C_LARGEST > C_FLAG
        Cause an error message. The flag C_FLAG is not
        big enough to hold all its possible values.
#endif /* C_LARGEST > C_FLAG */

The macro SET_MFLAG(N, F, V) sets flag F in variable N to the value V. The macro CLR_MFLAG(N, F) is identical to CLR_FLAG(N, F), except the name is changed so that all the operations on multibit flags have a similar naming convention. The macro GET_MFLAG(N, F) gets the value of flag F in variable N, so it can be tested, as in

if (GET_MFLAG(flags, C_FLAG) == C_BLUE)
        /* do something */;

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