What is the difference between WHERE clause and HAVING clause?
WHERE and HAVING both filters out records based on one or more conditions. The difference is, WHERE clause can only be applied on a static non-aggregated column whereas we will need to use HAVING for aggregated columns.
To understand this, consider this example.
Suppose we want to see only those departments where department ID is greater than 3. There is no aggregation operation and the condition needs to be applied on a static field. We will use WHERE clause here:
SELECT * FROM DEPT WHERE ID > 3
Next, suppose we want to see only those Departments where Average salary is greater than 80. Here the condition is associated with a non-static aggregated information which is “average of salary”. We will need to use HAVING clause here:
SELECT dept.name DEPARTMENT, avg(emp.sal) AVG_SAL FROM DEPT dept, EMPLOYEE emp WHERE dept.id = emp.dept_id (+) GROUP BY dept.name HAVING AVG(emp.sal) > 80
As you see above, there is only one department (Engineering) where average salary of employees is greater than 80.